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Journal of the Korean Child Neurology Society 2002;10(1):94-102.
Published online May 30, 2002.
A Clinical Study of Acute Symptomatic Seizures in Children.
Kwon Hoe Huh, Keum Ho Song, Ok Yeon Cho, Jae Hoon Sim, Do Jun Cho, Dug Ha Kim, Ki Sik Min, Ki Yang Yoo
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Anyang, Korea. ksmin@hallym.or.kr
The present study was designated to sex, age, etiology of acute symptomatic seizures, which refer to the seizure caused by specific and transient pathophysiologic abnormalities in the central nervous system and other systems, and furthermore to analyze the incidence of acute symptomatic seizures before and during hospitalization. METHODS: The medical records of six hundred and ten convulsive children under fifteen years of age, who visited the Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from January 1999 to May 2001, were reviewed. One hundred and fourteen cases out of them were analyzed, and febrile seizures and unprovoked seizures were excluded. RESULTS: Among six hundred and ten children who had seizure during hospitalization, one hundred and fourteen(18.7%) had acute symptomatic seizures exclusive of febrile seizures and unprovoked seizures. The ratio of male to female was 1:2.1 and the peak age was three or less, accounting for 93.9%. Acute symptomatic seizures were caused by acute gastroenteritis(42.0%), metabolic/toxic disturbances(34.1%), cerebrovascular diseases(8.8%), CNS infections(8.0%), hypoxemia(4.4%), brain tumors(1.8%), and others(0.9 %). Remarkably, hypocalcemia and shaken baby syndrom were up to 82.1% of metabolic/ toxic distubances and 30.0% of cerebrovascular diseases, respectively. Among the one hundred and fourteen patients, 41.2% suffered from seizures before and during hospitalization and 11.4% did not before but did during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Eighteen point seven percent of the cases of convulsions reviewed were classified into acute symptomatic seizures exclusive of febrile seizures and unprovoked seizures with the male to female ratio of 1:2.1 and high incidence age of three or less years. The leading causes of acute symtomatic seizures were acute gastroenteritis and hypocalcemia, comprising 70%. Shaken baby syrome and hyponatremia due to water intoxication can be prevented by public education about the danger, and central nervous system infection can be reduced by vaccine development and nationwide vaccination against the bacteria causing the central nervous system infection. In addition, appropriate prevention and management of seizure attacks are required for the patients with acute symptomatic seizures during hospitalization.
Key Words: Acute symptomatic seizure, Child


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