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Ann Child Neurol > Volume 25(3); 2017 > Article
Journal of the Korean Child Neurology Society 2017;25(3):162-168.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26815/jkcns.2017.25.3.162    Published online September 30, 2017.
Clinical Characteristics of Enteroviral Meningitis without Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis in Children.
Na Ri Kim, Jae Kyun Ku, Bo Lyun Lee
Department of Pediatrics, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea. bototii@hanmail.net
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features and laboratory findings of enteroviral meningitis according to the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and to investigate the factors influencing pleocytosis in children. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 300 children with enteroviral meningitis confirmed by CSF reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between 2012 and 2016. Electronic medical records including clinical and laboratory data were assessed. Clinical factors were compared between patients with and without pleocytosis. RESULTS: Of the total 300 children with enteroviral meningitis, 73 had no pleocytosis. The proportion of infants under the age of two years was higher in patients without pleocytosis than in patients with pleocytosis (39.7% vs 14.5%, P<0.001). Patients without pleocytosis were younger (43.4 months vs 66.2 months, P<0.001), had less prevalence of headache and vomiting, lower peripheral white blood cell count (9,740±3,555/mm³ vs 11,632±3,872/mm³) and a shorter interval between the onset and lumbar puncture than those with pleocytosis. In multiple regression analysis, younger age, vomiting, lower white blood cell count, and interval less than 24 hours from onset to spinal tap were associated with the absence of pleocytosis. CONCLUSION: This study showed that children younger than two years of age had high proportion of absence of pleocytosis and some of the factors analyzed correlated with CSF inflammation. Therefore, absence of pleocytosis in the initial CSF sample cannot exclude meningitis, and rapid RT-PCR testing should be performed with high suspicion in young infants.
Key Words: Enterovirus, Meningitis, Pleocytosis, Cerebrospinal fluid, Infant, Children


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